Journal information: New Journal of Physics (Phys.org)—Since a gazelle can run faster than a lion, how do lions ever catch gazelles? A new model of predator-prey interaction shows how groups of predators use collective chasing strategies, such as cornering and circling, to pursue and capture faster prey. Without this tactical collaboration, the predators would have no chance of catching these prey. Simulations of predators (blue dots) chasing a faster prey (red dot). Credit: Janosov et al. Published in New Journal of Physics. © 2017 Phys.org Modelling explains how hunters team up to catch faster prey Explore further In their model, the researchers also observed emergent behavior, which is behavior that appears only in groups. In particular, groups of predators often begin to encircle their prey, and this behavior arises directly from the chasing rules. In nature, it’s common for prey to sometimes run in a zigzag pattern to confuse the predator, and to eventually run directly away from the predator in a straight line. The researchers also observed these strategies in their model, and found that zigzagging is especially advantageous when the predators have a long delay in responding.In the future, the researchers expect that additional interesting results can be obtained by modifying the model, such as investigating situations with multiple fast prey and equipping predators and prey with machine learning algorithms. “Our major goal in this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the collective behavior of animals, to extend our knowledge on fundamental questions on animal behavior,” Janosov said. “However, given the fact that our research group is developing collective motion algorithms for our flock of quadrocopters, there are plenty of potential applications we could propose. For example, a group of tactical drones using smart encircling strategies could become even lifesaving in the case of terrorist attacks, when the goal is to capture terrorist flying vehicles, or chasing criminals in narrow, highly populated urban areas. “Besides these, our results could have potential applications even in the entertainment industry in developing field games, possibly combined with virtual reality tools, or by the streaming of popular sport events, especially those that are widely spread in space—for example, bike or car races.” The results are not only relevant for understanding wildlife, but also have potential applications for drone-flying strategies and in the entertainment industry.The researchers, Milán Janosov, Csaba Virágh, Gábor Vásárhelyi, and Tamás Vicsek at the MTA-ELTE Statistical and Biological Physics Research Group, Hungary, have published their paper on their new model of collective chasing strategies in a recent issue of the New Journal of Physics.”After many previous efforts, we managed to give a simple, yet surprisingly life-like explanation of how predator animals can form successful hunting packs, and by that drastically enhance their chances of being successful on a hunt,” Janosov told Phys.org. “This is particularly interesting because we managed to model these exceptionally complex systems—the hunting groups of large carnivores—in a simulation resembling realistic features of animal pursuits, such as encircling, optimal group size, and finite space, only by using a set of compact rules formulated as force-like interactions in physics.”Although there are other models that describe predator-prey interactions, the new model is different because of the large number of factors it accounts for, such as the prey’s panic threshold, the predator’s ability to predict the prey’s future position, and the interaction between multiple predators, within closed boundaries with realistic measures. All of these parameters contribute to making a more realistic model that accurately describes behaviors observed in nature by groups of predators such as lions, wolves, and coyotes.By running simulations and measuring the effectiveness of different combinations of parameter values, the researchers determined the optimal combinations that resulted in the most successful group chasing strategies. Among their results, they found that just one or two predators can never catch a faster prey, and that groups of three or more succeed only with certain collaborative strategies. More information: Milán Janosov et al. “Group chasing tactics: how to catch a faster prey.” New Journal of Physics. DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/aa69e7 Play Credit: Video abstract, New Journal of Physics. DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/aa69e7 The model revealed that three predators forms an optimal group when chasing in two dimensions (such as on land) in a confined space. In three dimensions (such as in the air or under water), chasing becomes more challenging, and groups of five are optimal. These group sizes are comparable to those observed in nature. Somewhat surprisingly, the researchers also found that an odd number of chasers does better than an even number, which is due to geometrical reasons: with an even number, it’s more likely that a gap remains between predators that allows the prey to escape. PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Citation: Understanding how slow predators catch faster prey could improve drone tactics (2017, May 29) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-05-predators-faster-prey-drone-tactics.html This document is subject to copyright. 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NATHAN Brown was proud of his Saints after they fought back to beat Leeds – and go five points clear at the top of the Super League table.Down 12-2 against 12-men, Lance Hohaia put Louie McCarthy-Scarsbrook over before tagging on a vital one-pointer following James Roby’s try.“The reality is if you are going to get a victory over Leeds you need to stick in there as they are never dead,” he said. “They fought hard with 12-men and got into a nice lead on the back of Kevin Sinfield’s great game control and kicking game.“I’m proud we hung on in there, we had a lot of defensive work to do but I thought we handled the likes of Hall, Hardaker and Watkins well.“People will talk about the 12, but I thought they were sensational in the first half. They completed at something like 96 per cent. We were under a lot of pressure in that half but we got going in the second and it should be a good learning curve for the team. I’m proud of them.“I’ve not had a good look at Joel Moon’s red card so I can’t really comment and wouldn’t want to. It would take the gloss off Leeds who had a good Challenge Cup victory last week played well tonight. Their players are great ambassadors for the game and Joel isn’t a dirty player. “Mark Percival is ok, that is the key, but it’s unlikely he will play next week under the concussion rules.”He continued: “Louie’s effort and commitment tonight was superb. He was upset with himself for a miss in the first half for Sutcliffe’s try but did well in the second. His form in the back half of the year has been sensational for us and he wears his heart on his sleeve.“I thought our wingers did well too as did Lance. He knows his importance to the team and he’s had a good season.”The win takes Saints five points clear at the top of the table with one victory between them and the League Leaders Shield.“Wherever we finish, first or second, with what we have been through this year and the guys we have not playing now – and how good they are – I’m proud of the guys,” Brown continued. “It’s been hard but they have bought into what we are trying to do and competing hard. We have to expect that from each other and see where it takes us.”Saints will face Warrington on Thursday September 4 at Langtree Park and tickets are now on sale.You can buy from the Ticket Office at Langtree Park, by calling 01744 455 052 or by logging on here.
[dropcap]I[/dropcap]t really was a treat, this morning, to be invited, to The Ivy, by Alan Newman, to the launch of his book; ‘It’s Not What You Know’. Chronicling his life and times, as a bookmaker, (with all profits going to The Peace Hospice, in Hertfordshire THE PEACE HOSPICE WEBSITE).The highlight of the event though, for me, was when Dave Stewart, who helps with the Star Sports website, and also edited Alan’s book, stood up to say a few words. He said something really special, that will certainly stay with me. Alan’s book isn’t just about his life, it’s about the wonderful community of characters; that Greyhound Racing is.IT’S NOT WHAT YOU KNOW by ALAN NEWMAN – available online for £19.95 at:https://sp2.img.hsyaolu.com.cn/wp-shlf1314/2023/IMG6475.jpg” alt=”last_img” />