Category: rijprlpi

Survey finds nearly half of people with health conditions skip medication

first_img Source:http://www.wearecouch.com/ May 14 2018Almost half of those with health conditions said that they skip their medication sometimes, despite knowing its benefits, while more than a quarter are unsure what to do if they experience side-effects, according to COUCH’s recently published report, “Are patients receiving value in terms of health literacy?”How well people understand their treatment determines how well they manage their health, but some demographics have a lack of understanding of how to manage their health condition. For example, those with lower education levels and of mixed ethnicity are more likely to report having less confidence in managing their health.COUCH, the medical communications agency behind the report, set out to find if patients are getting value from their healthcare practitioner (HCP). This included providing patients with relevant information, ensuring they understand their illness and treatment, and furthermore, how to manage it.Related StoriesAn active brain and body associated with reduced risk of dementiaHow to get a cheaper prescription before leaving the doctor’s officeAlmost 74% of Americans show concern about burnout among healthcare professionalsThose of black ethnicity were the only group where some strongly disagreed that they understood side-effects of their medication.Young people were also disproportionately affected when compared to other age groups, with more 19 to 24 year-olds reporting they don’t understand their health condition and how to manage it.The survey also reveals a significant link between higher educational attainment and levels of health literacy, as higher educated participants reported a better understanding of their own health, as well as feeling more able to ask their doctor for clarification. Conversely, those with higher levels of education are also more likely to skip medication, possibly because of a, ‘perception that they are capable of self-diagnosis and medication’, the report states.The survey goes on to conclude: “There is a clear link between ethnicity and educational status that cannot be ignored.”The likelihood of a person following medication guidelines correctly was also dependent on the condition they were managing. While at least half of those with mental health, respiratory, and musculoskeletal conditions reported skipping medication, no one with cancer reported doing so, suggesting a link between the life-shortening potential of a disease and a patients’ management of their treatment.Participants also said HCPs are their first choice for healthcare information, followed by the internet.COUCH’s report underlines the importance for patients to have a good relationship with their HCP, whom they say can also help educate patients on where to seek reliable internet-based information.The report calls for more education targeting younger people, using approaches such as social media. It also states the importance for HCPs to understand the influence of age, ethnicity and educational background in forgetting to take medication.last_img read more

Researchers develop film to prevent bacteria from growing on dental retainers and

first_imgMay 24 2018Clear, plastic aligners have been growing in popularity as alternatives to bulky, metal braces. And once the teeth are straightened, patients graduate to plastic retainers to maintain the perfect smile. But these appliances can become contaminated, so one group is now reporting in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces that they have developed a film to prevent bacteria from growing on them.According to the American Association of Orthodontists, more than 5 million people seek orthodontic treatments each year. These procedures include braces and aligners, a set of plastic pieces that shift the teeth slightly over time, in an attempt to fix crowded jaws, over- and under-bites and improperly aligned teeth. Clear aligners or retainers, known collectively as clear overlay appliances (COAs) are made by taking a dental cast and using pressure or heat on a plastic sheet. But bacteria frequently build up on COAs as difficult-to-treat biofilms, and the plastics easily wear down. Scientists have turned to developing simple and affordable coatings to combat this. Drawing inspiration from super-hydrophilic antibacterial coatings on other medical devices, Hyo-Won Ahn, Jinkee Hong and colleagues wanted to see if they could make something similar for COAs in the unique oral environment.The researchers took a polymer sheet made of polyethylene terephthalate that was modified with glycol (PETG) and layered films of carboxymethylcellulose and chitosan on it. This layered film created a super-hydrophilic surface, or a surface that loves water, that prevented bacteria from adhering. When PETG with the film was compared to the bare material, bacterial growth was reduced by 75 percent. The coated plastic also was stronger and more durable, even when tested with artificial saliva and various acidic solutions. Source:https://www.acs.org/last_img read more

Nonopioid drug shows promise for treating pain by targeting receptors on immune

first_imgJul 6 2018Faced with the epidemic of opioid addiction, researchers have been charged with finding other strategies to treat pain. Their efforts largely have focused on nerve cells that transmit pain signals to the spinal cord and brain. But new research, led by scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, shows that targeting receptors on immune cells may be more effective, particularly for chronic pain.Recently, a non-opioid, investigational drug called EMA401 has shown promise as a treatment for lingering nerve pain following shingles infection. While trying to understand how that drug helped control pain, the Washington University research team was surprised to find that it doesn’t hit nerve cells; rather, it targets a receptor on immune cells.Their findings are published July 2 in The Journal of Neuroscience.”We are in dire need of good pain-killing drugs, particularly non-opioid drugs,” said principal investigator D.P. Mohapatra, PhD, an associate professor in anesthesiology. “Generally, scientists have the understanding that targets for treating pain must be within the nervous system. It turns out that the target here is not on nerve cells, but on immune cells called macrophages.”The investigational drug inhibits the angiotensin II type 2 receptor that is targeted by medications that lower blood pressure. Angiotensin is a hormone that causes blood vessels to constrict, increasing blood pressure.This drug was thought to work by interacting with the type 2 receptor on nerve cells -; the same cells that carry pain signals. But when Mohapatra and his colleagues at the Washington University Pain Center looked more closely, they found that theory was wrong.”When we took nerve cells from mice, put them in a culture dish and added the angiotensin hormone, nothing happened,” said co-investigator Andrew Shepherd, PhD, an instructor in anesthesiology. “There was no angiotensin type 2 receptor on sensory neurons, so pain signals couldn’t be transmitted.”Related StoriesMarijuana isn’t a great choice for glaucoma treatment, says expertHow a simple MRI scan can help patients with anginaNew computational model explores daily pain sensitivity rhythmsBut in other experiments in which they injected the angiotensin hormone into mice, the animals indicated they felt pain and withdrew their paws when touched.”We found that the receptor the drug affected wasn’t on the nerve cells; it was on macrophages, the immune cells,” Shepherd said. “When we added macrophages to the dish alongside the nerve cells, the angiotensin could ‘talk’ to the macrophages, and then the macrophages ‘talked’ to the nerve cells, which then transmitted pain signals.”When the researchers reduced the number of macrophages in mice, the animals didn’t appear to feel pain in response to an angiotensin injection. But as the macrophages repopulated over the course of a few days, the response to pain returned. To support these observations in mice and the culture dish, the researchers also have found increased numbers of macrophages alongside degenerating nerve fibers in skin biopsies taken from the legs of patients who have diabetic neuropathy.Increasing the number of potential targets for painkillers and including targets such as receptors on immune cells may make it possible to develop more effective painkilling drugs with fewer side effects, Mohapatra said.”The beauty of this drug is that, unlike an opioid, it doesn’t cross the blood-brain barrier, so right away you eliminate a number of potentially harmful side effects, including addiction and the potential for abuse,” he said. “And by widening the scope of potential targets to macrophages, it may be possible to develop more effective therapies for chronic, neuropathic pain.” Source:https://medicine.wustl.edu/news/targeting-immune-cells-provides-non-opioid-pain-relief-in-mice/last_img read more

Scientists get unprecedented view of brain development through highresolution genomic map

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Sep 14 2018Researchers at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital have created a massive database of the changes in gene activity of individual cells in the cerebellum during embryonic development and immediately after birth. The analysis of thousands of brain cells isolated from mice offers researchers a high-resolution map that enables scientists to view the detailed genomic changes cells undergo as the cerebellum wires its neural circuitry. The research will not only aid basic understanding of brain development, but also provide a foundation for understanding the cellular origins of brain disorders caused by errors in development. These anatomical defects include Joubert syndrome, Dandy-Walker malformation and pontocerebellar hypoplasia. The database will enable future studies tracing the cellular origins of childhood brain tumors such as medulloblastoma, astrocytoma and ependymoma.Researchers worldwide can interact with the data via an interface St. Jude has created called Cell Seek.The findings appear today in the journal Current Biology. The research was led by co-corresponding authors John Easton, Ph.D., of the Department of Computational Biology; Paul Northcott, Ph.D., of the Department of Developmental Neurobiology; and Charles Gawad, M.D., Ph.D., of the Departments of Oncology and Computational Biology.Although the cerebellum constitutes only about 10 percent of brain volume in humans, it contains more than half of all nerve cells in the central nervous system. The cerebellum is also a key brain control center, coordinating motor function and governing higher functions such as attention, and spatial and language processing.In their research, Easton, Northcott, Gawad and their colleagues used a genetic sequencing technology called single-cell RNA-seq to measure the continually changing activity of genes in single brain cells isolated from embryonic and newborn mice. The researchers sequenced RNA because the level of such RNA reflects the level of gene activity, or “expression,” in the cell. RNA acts as the template to construct proteins that are the building blocks of cells.Most such previous brain developmental studies analyzed changes in mixes of different brain cell types or studied a limited number of genes. However, the St. Jude researchers analyzed gene expression in a vast array of genes in each of the cell types present in the developing mouse brain.To compile their data, scientists performed RNA-seq analyses of 39,245 brain cells during 12 time points of brain development. The 12 time points–a sequence of days during brain development–were well known as stages when immature brain cells “decide” to develop into mature specialized cells.Related StoriesNeural pathways explain the relationship between imagination and willingness to helpRepurposing a heart drug could increase survival rate of children with ependymomaResearchers measure EEG-based brain responses for non-speech and speech sounds in children”What we have done is acquire global expression profiles of individual cells without using any prior knowledge. This has allowed us to study how many cell types there are at a specific development point and how they are related to each other in a much less biased manner than previous strategies,” Gawad said. “If we can capture cells in these different developmental states, we can begin to understand pediatric diseases that happen as a result of abnormal cerebellar development.””Also, since most brain tumors in young children occur in the cerebellar region, this will help us identify the cells of origin for different brain tumors and brain tumor subtypes,” he said.To demonstrate their database, the researchers traced the gene expression in a type of immature brain cell called a glutamatergic progenitor cell as it “decided” what type of mature brain cell to become. Their analysis revealed that the decision point was characterized by waves of activation of master-control genes called transcription factors that regulate other genes.”This analysis showed us that the developmental program for these cells was even more complex than we previously appreciated,” Gawad said. The finding opens the door for a deeper understanding of the type and order of genetic processes that drive these cells’ maturation, he said.The Cell Seek interface will enable researchers worldwide to glean insight into brain development from the data, Gawad said.”These kinds of data would not otherwise be accessible to many labs, as they are even more complex to analyze than traditional RNA sequencing data,” he said.”We wanted to build an easy-to-use interface that allowed labs without bioinformatics capability to mine the data,” Gawad said. “With Cell Seek, they can easily track the developmental processes they are interested in and use the insights to inform their experiments to study cerebellar development and disease.”Other St. Jude researchers are already using Cell Seek in their studies of both normal development and childhood cancer formation.Source: https://www.stjude.org/media-resources/news-releases/2018-medicine-science-news/high-resolution-genomic-map-gives-scientists-unprecedented-view-of-brain-development.htmllast_img read more

Bear dogs once lived in southern Texas

first_img Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Email Earlier analyses of these fossils only considered their external features, and the remains were so fragmentary that paleontologists could only say the creatures were carnivores of some sort. But Tomiya and Tseng’s new study used x-rays to generate detailed 3D scans of the fossils’ internal features. Those scans revealed a distinct pattern of blood vessel channels in the base of the skull that identified the creatures as amphicyonids, making them among the oldest known members of the lineage, the researchers report online today in Royal Society Open Science. Both creatures have been renamed to reflect their revamped spot on the mammalian family tree, Tomiya says. The researchers placed the smaller amphicyonid in a new genus, Gustafsonia, (honoring a paleontologist who studied fossils from this area). They put the cat-sized bear dog into the new genus Angelarctocyon, which, translated from the Greek, means “messenger bear dog.”The new research is “an elegant study” that uses tools not available to previous generations of paleontologists, says Zhe-Xi Luo, a vertebrate paleontologist at the University of Chicago. The Texas creatures “are now recognized as previously lost cousins” to the amphicyonids, he notes, adding immensely to the diversity of bear dogs known from southern North America at the time.Fossils of another early amphicyonid have been unearthed from slightly older rocks in Europe. But the new fossils make clear that southern North America was a hot spot of evolution for these creatures, with half a dozen species early in their history, says Xiaoming Wang, a vertebrate paleontologist at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California.It’s not clear why the amphicyonid lineage eventually died out a few million years ago, Luo says. But maybe it had to do with competition from the ancestors and close cousins of today’s cats and dogs, he suggests. Those creatures, like their modern-day kin, walked on their toes and were more well adapted to run and chase prey. But amphicyonids were, for the most part, flat-footed predators like most modern bears. During the last days of the bear dog reign on Earth, the planet’s climate was becoming cooler and drier and many ecosystems were becoming less forested and more open—not a good trend for relatively slow, relatively specialized meat eaters like the amphicyonids, Luo says.center_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Fragmentary fossils found in southwestern Texas 3 decades ago belong to a strange group of extinct animals known as “bear dogs,” according to a new study. Though only about the size of a Chihuahua when they first appeared, some creatures in this group of carnivorous mammals evolved to become top predators in their ecosystems tens of millions of years ago. The study also suggests that bear dogs could have originated in this part of North America, which may have been a hot spot of evolution for the group.Bear dogs, scientifically known as amphicyonids, get their common name from their general resemblance to modern-day bears and dogs, especially in their body shape and posture, but they are, in fact, only distantly related to these lineages. Neither dogs nor bears had evolved when amphicyonids first appeared about 40 million years ago, says Susumu Tomiya, a vertebrate paleontologist at The Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, Illinois. The first known species in the group weighed just a few kilograms, but over millions of years the lineage expanded to include fox-sized, coyote-sized, and even bear-sized creatures, all of them meat eaters. It’s not clear where or when amphicyonids evolved, but they apparently lived in North America, Asia, and Europe, Tomiya says.While walking through The Field Museum’s collections one day, Tomiya spotted a fossil of a small carnivore that he thought might be an unrecognized amphicyonid. So he and vertebrate paleontologist Jack Tseng of the State University of New York at Buffalo took a closer look at the specimen, plus a similar one that had been unearthed in the same area of southwestern Texas, about 300 kilometers southeast of El Paso. Those fossils, first described in 1986, are about 37 million or 38 million years old. One of the creatures, known from only an 8-centimeter-long skull with a few teeth missing, probably weighed about 2.3 kilograms (5 pounds) and was about the size of a Chihuahua. The other animal, based on the size of its skull, was slightly larger and probably the size of an average house cat, Tomiya says.last_img read more

Was this ancient person from China the offspring of modern humans and

first_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Haowen Tong Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe By Ann GibbonsOct. 12, 2017 , 12:00 PM When scientists excavated a 40,000-year-old skeleton in China in 2003, they thought they had discovered the offspring of a Neandertal and a modern human. But ancient DNA now reveals that the “Tianyuan Man” has only traces of Neandertal DNA and none detectable from another type of extinct human known as a Denisovan. Instead, he was a full-fledged member of our species, Homo sapiens, and a distant relative of people who today live in East Asia and South America. The work could help scientists retrace some of the earliest steps of human migration.“The paper is very exciting because it is the first genome to fill a really big gap, both geographically and temporally, in East Asia,” says paleogeneticist Pontus Skoglund of Harvard Medical School in Boston, who was not involved in the work.The first modern humans arose in Africa about 300,000 years ago. By 60,000 years ago, a subset swept out of Africa and mated with Neandertals, perhaps in the Middle East. After that, they spread around the world—DNA from ancient humans in Europe, western Asia, and the Americas has revealed the identity of those early migrants and whether they were related to people living today, especially in Europe. But the trail grows cold in eastern Asia, where warmer climates have made it hard to get ancient DNA from fossils. DNA was analyzed from a partial skeleton of a 40,000-year-old human found at Tianyuan Cave.center_img Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Email Was this ancient person from China the offspring of modern humans and Neandertals? The new genome sheds some light on those missing years. In the first genome-wide study of an ancient East Asian, researchers led by Qiaomei Fu, a paleogeneticist at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, extracted DNA from the thighbone of the Tianyuan Man—so named because he was found in Tianyuan Cave, 56 kilometers southwest of Beijing.The team calculated that the Tianyuan Man inherited about as much Neandertal DNA—4% to 5%—as ancient Europeans and Asians of similar age. That’s a bit higher than the 1.8% to 2.6% of Neandertal DNA in living Europeans and Asians. The Tianyuan Man did not have any detectable DNA from Denisovans, an elusive cousin of Neandertals known only from their DNA extracted from a few teeth and small bones from a Siberian cave and from traces of their DNA that can still be found in people in Melanesia—where they got it is a major mystery.  A big surprise is that the Tianyuan Man shares DNA with one ancient European—a 35,000-year-old modern human from Goyet Caves in Belgium. But he doesn’t share it with other ancient humans who lived at roughly the same time in Romania and Siberia—or with living Europeans. But the Tianyuan Man is most closely related to living people in east Asia—including in China, Japan, and the Koreas—and in Southeast Asia, including Papua New Guinea and Australia.All of this suggests that the Tianyuan Man was not a direct ancestor, but rather a distant cousin, of a founding population in Asia that gave rise to present-day Asians, Fu’s team reports today in Current Biology. It also shows that these ancient “populations moved around a lot and intermixed,” says paleoanthropologist Erik Trinkaus of Washington University in St. Louis in Missouri, who is not a co-author.And some left offspring whereas others did not. “I find it interesting that … some of the early modern colonizers of Eurasia were successful while others were not,” says co-author Svante Pääbo, a paleogeneticist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.The Tianyuan Man also was a distant relative of Native Americans living today in the Amazon of South America, such as the Karitiana and Surui peoples of Brazil and the Chane people of northern Argentina and southern Bolivia. They inherited about 9% to 15% of their DNA from an ancestral population in Asia that also gave rise to the Tianyuan Man. But he is not an ancestor to ancient or living Native Americans in North America, which suggests there were two different source populations in Asia for Native Americans.This is welcome news to Skoglund, who found in a separate study in 2015 that the Karitiana and Surui peoples are closely related to indigenous Australians, New Guineans, and Andaman Islanders. At the time, he predicted that they came from the same “ghost” source population in Asia, which was separate from another Asian population that gave rise to Native Americans in North America. “It’s fascinating that a prediction of a ‘ghost population’ based on modern-day populations alone can be confirmed in this way,” he says.last_img read more

Massive star system primed for intense explosion

first_imgTheorists have suggested that if Earth happened to be lined up with such a nearby gamma ray blast, the intense ray of energy could wipe out our ozone layer or worse. But the team thinks Apep isn’t pointing in our direction. So enjoy the show and stay safe! Massive star system primed for intense explosion By Daniel CleryNov. 19, 2018 , 11:00 AM Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country University of Sydney/European Southern Observatory Email Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe A star system in our galaxy could give us a ringside seat for one of the brightest lightshows in the universe. And, with luck, it won’t wipe out all life on our planet.The system—located 8000 light-years away and dubbed Apep after an Egyptian snake deity—contains a binary pair of stars surrounded by a serpentine-shaped dust cloud. One of stars is an unusually massive sun known as a Wolf-Rayet star. When such stars run out of fuel, they collapse, causing a supernova explosion. Theorists believe that if the Wolf-Rayet star is also spinning fast, the explosion will produce intense jets of gamma rays out of either pole—which we can see far across the universe as a gamma ray burst, if we happen to be in the path of the beam.Apep may be just such a case: Both stars are blowing off fast stellar winds; as the winds collide, they billow out in plumes of dust which, as the pair rotate, forms into the pinwheel pattern pictured above. Looking at the spectra of light from the system, the team found that wind is coming off the Wolf-Rayet star at a blistering 3400 kilometers per second, but that the dust plumes are moving at a more leisurely 570 kilometers per second. This is possible, they say in today’s issue of Nature Astronomy, if the Wolf-Rayet star is rotating rapidly and so producing fast wind at the pole and slower gusts at its equator. If the scientists are right, and this is a rapidly rotating Wolf-Rayet star, it could be the best candidate yet for a gamma ray burst in our own galaxy, although it may not blow for many thousands of years.last_img read more

Junk DNA may help yeast survive stress

first_img ‘Junk DNA’ may help yeast survive stress Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe By Mitch LeslieJan. 16, 2019 , 2:30 PM Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Steve Gschmeissner/Science Source center_img Yeast may rely on introns to help them survive hard times. Email Like deleted scenes snipped out of a movie, some sequences in our genes end up on the cutting-room floor, and cells don’t use them to make proteins. Now, two studies find that these segments, known as introns, help yeast survive during hard times. The research uncovers another possible function for a type of DNA that scientists once thought was useless.“They are very strong, very convincing, and very exciting results,” says evolutionary molecular biologist Scott Roy of San Francisco State University in California, who wasn’t connected to the studies. The research “opens a whole new paradigm of what introns could be doing.” It also answers the long-standing question of why yeast has kept what was formerly considered “junk DNA,” says yeast microbiologist Guillaume Chanfreau of the University of California, Los Angeles.Introns are prevalent in plants and fungi, as well as in humans and other animals—each of our roughly 20,000 genes carries an average of eight. When one of our cells starts to make a protein from a particular gene, enzymes generate an RNA copy that includes the introns. Next, the cell snips the introns out of the RNA and splices the remaining portions of the molecule back together. This edited RNA molecule then serves as a guide to build the protein. Removing introns requires a lot of energy—and a complex set of molecular shears—suggesting the sequences evolved to carry out specific functions. After initially dismissing them as junk, researchers have recently begun to identify some of these roles. For instance, introns in some genes may help control how much of the corresponding proteins the cell manufactures.But in baker’s yeast, an organism that has ditched most of its introns (it has just 295 for some 6000 genes), the functions of most of the sequences are murky. Scientists who deleted individual introns, for example, found that in most cases the fungi were unfazed.However, researchers typically haven’t looked at yeast under conditions it would face in the wild, where it could endure periods of food scarcity that don’t occur in the lab. To determine what happens during deprivation, RNA biologist Sherif Abou Elela of the University of Sherbrooke in Canada and colleagues systematically deleted introns from yeast, producing hundreds of strains, each of which was missing all of the introns from one gene. The researchers then grew combinations of these modified strains alongside normal fungi.When food was scarce, most of the intron-lacking strains rapidly died out, the team reports today in Nature. They couldn’t compete with normal yeast. However, in cultures with more nutrients, the altered yeast had the advantage. “If you are in good times, it’s a burden” to have introns, Abou Elela says. “In bad times, it’s beneficial.”Molecular biologist David Bartel of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge and colleagues independently chanced on similar results. They were measuring the amounts of different RNA molecules in yeast cells, and they expected most introns to quickly deteriorate after they were snipped out of their parental RNA strand. But as they report today in a separate paper in Nature, they noticed that large numbers of introns built up in cells growing in crowded cultures.“It was incredibly bizarre,” says Bartel’s former graduate student Jeffrey Morgan, now a molecular biologist at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City. Like Abou Elela’s team, Bartel’s group found that introns aided yeast under duress but harmed cells living under more favorable conditions. The scientists suspect the introns help the stressed-out yeast rein in growth.Although how these introns provide their benefits remains unclear, the two studies suggest similar mechanisms. As the yeast’s environment turns harsh, introns become more abundant and may effectively clog the molecular shears that normally snip them out of RNAs, slowing down the synthesis of some proteins and allowing the cells to conserve their resources. That may seem like a convoluted process, but “evolution doesn’t always choose the simplest solution,” Bartel says.last_img read more

Mice like people like to be rocked to sleep

first_img Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) By Mary BeckmanJan. 24, 2019 , 12:00 PM The researchers did not look for a benefit of rocking on memory, which a related study suggests is a benefit for humans. The mice showed other differences from people as well; the rodents like to be rocked about four times faster than we do, for example. These differences might reflect the fact that mice carry their pups around in their mouths, which has a lulling effect, rather than rocking them in their arms like humans. But the researchers say it’s too early to speculate on shared evolutionary mechanisms.More intriguingly, mice that lacked a key part of the vestibular system called otoliths—teensy stones that sense linear acceleration—did not get any benefit at all from being rocked at bedtime, confirming the vestibular system’s central role in the effect, the team reports today in Current Biology.The results might lead to better noninvasive treatments for sleep disorders, the researchers say. For example, understanding how the brain uses the “rocking signal” to promote sleep might usher in alternatives such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, which uses electrical impulses to stimulate nerve cells and has been used to treat other brain disorders such as depression. But for now, you’re probably fine with a hammock. Mice, like people, like to be rocked to sleep Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Email Forget the running wheel. If your pet mouse is an insomniac, what it really needs is a hammock. New research shows that mice, just like humans, fall asleep faster with a gentle sway.Mild rocking helps both adults and children fall asleep faster and experience deeper, longer sleep. Scientists have suspected that the human vestibular system—the bits of the inner ear that keep us balanced and oriented in space—are involved, but there’s been no solid proof.So, in the new study, researchers put mouse cages on rocking platforms, monitored the animals’ brain activity, and measured how well they slept. The rodents slept 12% longer with rocking than without, and they fell asleep 51% faster if they had been sleep-deprived. But their brain signals did not indicate a deeper sleep. Juniors Bildarchiv GmbH/Alamy Stock Photo Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwelast_img read more

Embryo experiments take baby steps toward growing human organs in livestock

first_img The perpetual shortage of human organs for transplant has researchers turning to farm animals. Several biotech companies are genetically engineering pigs to make their organs more compatible with the human body. But some scientists are pursuing a different solution: growing fully human organs in pigs, sheep, or other animals, which could then be harvested for transplants.The idea is biologically daunting and ethically fraught. But a few teams are chipping away at a key roadblock: getting stem cells of one species to thrive in the embryo of another. Last month, a U.S. group reported in a preprint that it had grown chimpanzee stem cells in monkey embryos. And newly loosened regulations in Japan have encouraged researchers to seek approval for experiments to boost the survival of human cells in the developing embryos of rodents and pigs. Insoo Hyun, a bioethicist at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, says the work is being done responsibly. Efforts such as the new chimp-monkey chimeras represent “baby steps forward, gathering data as you go,” he says. “And I think that’s a wise approach.”Ultimately, the researchers envision reprogramming a person’s cells to a primitive developmental state that can form most any tissue and injecting these induced pluripotent stem (IPS) cells into another species’s embryo. The embryo would be implanted in the uterus of a surrogate, and allowed to grow to full size to serve as an organ donor. The IPS cells could come from the person awaiting transplant or, in a potentially faster and less costly approach, human organs could be grown in advance from cells from other donors, matched for key immune signaling proteins to prevent rejection. BELMONTE LAB, SALK INSTITUTE FOR BIOLOGICAL STUDIES Successful rodent chimera experiments, such as this mouse embryo harboring rat heart cells (red), have been hard to re-create with human cells.  Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Email Embryo experiments take ‘baby steps’ toward growing human organs in livestockcenter_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country By Kelly ServickJun. 26, 2019 , 11:50 AM So far, the feat has been modeled only in rodents. In 2010, stem cell biologist Hiromitsu Nakauchi and his team at the University of Tokyo reported growing rat pancreases in mice that couldn’t form pancreases of their own. In 2017, Nakauchi and colleagues treated diabetes in mice by giving them transplants of insulin-producing mouse pancreas tissue grown in a rat.But the success in rodents hasn’t held up between larger and more evolutionarily distant animals. In 2017, cell biologist Jun Wu and colleagues in Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte’s lab at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego, California, reported that when they injected pig embryos with human IPS cells and implanted the embryos into sows, about half of the resulting fetuses were stunted and slow growing. Those that were normal size had very few human cells after a month of gestation.Wu, who is now at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, has since explored how human stem cells interact in a lab dish with stem cells from nonhuman primates, rats, mice, sheep, and cows. He’s found what he calls “a very exciting phenomenon: a competition between cells of different species.” Pitted against cells of distantly related animals, human cells tend to die off, and the team is now trying to understand the mechanism. “I think we are almost there,” Wu says.But competition isn’t the only problem. Primate IPS cells are also more developmentally advanced, or “primed,” than the “naïve” rodent stem cells used in the earlier successful chimera experiments. They are therefore less likely to survive in a chimeric embryo, says Nakauchi, who also has a lab at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California. To help primate IPS cells thrive, his Stanford team and collaborators endowed them with a gene that prevents cell death. In the experiments reported last month, they tested how the modified cells would fare in the embryo of a closely related primate species.To avoid raising ethical concerns, the team decided not to use human IPS cells. If a nonhuman primate embryo with added human cells were allowed to develop in a surrogate and many human cells survived and proliferated, the result would be an unprecedented primate chimera. “People are concerned that the boundary between humans and animals could become blurred,” says Misao Fujita, a bioethicist at Kyoto University in Japan who recently conducted a survey of attitudes toward animal-human chimeras in the Japanese public. Respondents were particularly worried that such animals could have enhanced intelligence or carry human sperm and egg cells.Nakauchi’s team instead modified IPS cells from the closest human relative, the chimpanzee, and put them into rhesus macaque embryos. They found that, compared with unmodified chimpanzee IPS cells, the cells with the survival-promoting gene were more likely to persist in the 2 days after they were inserted into a 5-day-old monkey embryo. It’s hard to keep a monkey embryo alive in a dish for much longer than a week, Nakauchi says, but his team plans to grow its chimeras further by implanting them into the uteruses of female macaques “in the near future.”Nakauchi also has submitted proposals to a government committee in Japan to put the survival-promoting gene into human stem cells and inject them into mouse, rat, and pig embryos—but not nonhuman primates—that lack a gene critical to pancreas development. The researchers hope that, as in the earlier rodent experiments, the human cells will begin to form the missing pancreas. His team would implant the embryos in surrogate animals but remove them for study before they reach full term. The proposals are an initial test for new legal guidelines in Japan, which in March lifted an outright ban on culturing human-animal chimeras past 14 days or putting them into a uterus.Other groups are honing different recipes for chimera-friendly stem cells. In January, a team from Yale University and the Axion Research Foundation in Hamden, Connecticut, described culturing monkey IPS cells with chemicals that prompted gene expression patterns like those of mouse embryonic stem cells, which are more likely to survive in a chimera. In April, Yale University stem cell biologist Alejandro De Los Angeles reported that the technique prompted similar gene expression changes in human IPS cells. He’s now considering testing how these cells hold up in a mouse or other nonhuman embryo.Such work faces hurdles in the United States. There is no outright ban, but in 2015 the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, froze its review of grant applications for research that involves putting human pluripotent stem cells—whether IPS cells or cells from human embryos—into early embryos of nonhuman vertebrates. After protest from some researchers, the agency in 2016 proposed lifting the broad prohibition while keeping a funding ban on specific chimera experiments, including inserting human stem cells into early nonhuman primate embryos and breeding chimeric animals that may have human egg or sperm cells. The proposal is “still under consideration,” according to an NIH spokesperson.The moratorium “has had a very significant impact on the progress of this field,” says Pablo Ross, a reproductive biologist at the University of California, Davis, who does chimera research. “Some of the concerns that are raised are to be taken seriously, but I think we have the tools to do that, and [these concerns] shouldn’t prevent us from pursuing this goal.”Because of the slow pace of chimera research, even some of its proponents predict that xenotransplantation—the use of nonhuman tissue, such as modified pig organs, for transplants—will beat their approach to the clinic. “Xenotransplantation is close to prime time now,” Wu says, and “we are lagging behind.” But the possibility of creating organs that are a better match for their human recipients keeps his lab and others poring over stem cells and embryos, hoping to narrow the species divide.last_img read more

This dizzying labyrinth will host next years party for maths Nobel prize

first_img By Allyn JacksonOct. 9, 2018 , 1:10 PM This dizzying labyrinth will host next year’s party for math’s ‘Nobel’ prize When mathematician Hans Munthe-Kaas of the University of Bergen in Norway was asked to help design a new botanical garden for his school, he had absolutely no idea what he could contribute. One year later, he has devised a wonder: a math-based labyrinth (above) that will feature in next year’s celebration for the winner of the Abel Prize.Called the Archimedes Labyrinth, the maze occupies 800 square meters in Adiabata, a rain garden that takes its name from the adiabatic process that occurs when moist sea air is pushed over mountains.To design the labyrinth, Munthe-Kaas started with spirals. He took particular inspiration from the Archimedes spiral, a curve that appears throughout the natural world, including in fiddlehead ferns. He next looked to the symmetrical, infinitely repeating, 2D patterns known as “wallpaper groups,” which can be seen in mosaics common in ancient and medieval buildings, like Spain’s Alhambra. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! 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Of those two, one had an underlying lattice of hexagons, the other of squares. Munthe-Kaas chose the hexagons to make the maze “more fun to move within.” In additions, he says hexagons have a more organic feel—think of honeycombs or the shells of tortoises.  The walls of the maze are made of yew trees, including several potted yews that can be moved around to change the arrangement of the maze. And because the labyrinth is so close to the Bergen airport, the striking design can be seen from the air.The unique garden, which opened last weekend, will host part of next year’s celebration for the Abel Prize, often called the “Nobel” of math. Visitors will be invited to solve a puzzle based on clues scattered throughout the maze.For Munthe-Kaas, who coincidentally serves as the current chair of the Abel Prize Committee, the project was great fun—and inspiring. The labyrinth is, he hopes, “something that will remain for hundreds of years.” Emaillast_img read more

Our favorite science news stories of 2018

first_img Quantum measurements could power a tiny, hyperefficient engineYou’ve heard of a steam engine and an internal combustion engine—but how about a measurement engine? This unusual device—based on a bizarre aspect of quantum mechanics—could run with nearly 100% efficiency, far greater than a car engine. It’s all hypothetical for now, but physicists say it might actually be possible to build one. Birth canals are different all over the world, countering a long-held evolutionary theoryIt’s known as the “obstetrical dilemma”: the idea that two opposing evolutionary forces have shaped the human birth canal. But this story—one of our most popular of the year—suggests this long-held theory may not hold up. Far from just a paradigm shift, the work could improve practices surrounding childbirth. By David GrimmDec. 20, 2018 , 2:00 PM The secret sex life of strawberriesStrawberries aren’t just delicious—they have the youngest known sex chromosomes of any plant or animal, meaning they branched into male and female forms relatively recently. This fascinating story explores how they did it—and what the implications are for the rest of the kingdom of life. Outer space may have just gotten a bit closer NASA EARTH OBSERVATORY traskevych/POND5 Naked mole rats defy the biological law of agingNaked mole rats: Is there anything they can’t do? These homely little mammals rarely get cancer, don’t feel some types of pain, and can survive up to 18 minutes without oxygen. They also appear not to age, according to this story. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Email Our favorite science news stories of 2018 Lia Betti This ocean path will take you on the longest straight-line journey on EarthLet’s pretend you’ve got a boat—and a lot of free time. What path would send you on the longest ride in the world, without ever having to touch the steering wheel? The question, first posed on reddit, now has an answer, thanks to a team of resourceful scientists. Most ankylosaurs were fossilized belly up. Now, scientists think they know whyA dinosaur story seems to make our list every year, and this one’s a doozy. Most fossils of the heavily armored ankylosaur are found upside down. The reason was a mystery for decades, but thanks to an unusual collaboration between paleontologists and armadillo experts, scientists may finally have an answer. This Roman ‘gate to hell’ killed its victims with a cloud of deadly carbon dioxideThe ancient Romans staged elaborate sacrifices at what they believed were entrances to the underworld. The animal victims died quickly, but the humans who accompanied them returned unharmed. Is this proof of the supernatural, or is there a much simpler, geological explanation?center_img MICHAEL BLANN/GETTY IMAGES National Geographic Creative/Alamy Stock Photo REBIKOFF-NIGGELLER FOUNDATION CaoWei/Getty Images Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country ‘I’ve never seen anything like it.’ Video of mating deep-sea anglerfish stuns biologistsYou can’t argue with a cool video, and this is one of the coolest we saw this year: the first known footage of anglerfish—some of the creepiest denizens of the deep—mating. One expert says: “It was really a shocker for me.” NICOLLE R. FULLER/Science Source DEAN MOUHTAROPOULOS/GETTY IMAGES Every year, Science publishes hundreds of news stories, both online and in our weekly magazine. And whereas many of these highlight huge advances in research (some of which get a nod in our breakthroughs of the year), a lot are simply cool stories that resonated with us, our readers, or both. And that’s what this list focuses on—some of our coolest and most popular online news stories of the year. It’s an eclectic mix, and you’re sure to find at least a few you’ll want to read—or read all over again. Some of our favorite stories fundamentally change our understanding of how the world works—and where that world begins and ends. In this case, it’s the boundary between Earth’s atmosphere and outer space. It turns out that it’s a lot closer than we thought. R. CHABUKSWAR ET AL.; ARXIV:1804.07389V1, 2018, ADAPTED BY J. YOU/SCIENCE Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Your gut is directly connected to your brain, by a newly discovered neuron circuitYou may think your gut has a mind of its own—especially when it wakes you up in the middle of the night in search of brownies. This isn’t too far from the truth, finds our most popular item of the year. Our gut has a direct connection to our brain through a neural circuit that allows it to transmit signals in mere seconds. The findings could lead to new treatments for obesity, eating disorders, and even depression.last_img read more

Dominica joins International Civil Aviation Organization

first_imgShareTweetSharePinDouglas Charles Airport from the air. File photoDominica has now become the 193rd member state of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) following its official adherence to the Convention on International Civil Aviation (the Chicago Convention).Dominica deposited its notification of adherence to the convention on March 14, 2019, and its ICAO member state status became effective 30 days after April 13, 2019. ICAO was advised of the development by the government of the United States of America, which serves as the depositary of the Chicago Convention. The ICAO member states were advised separately of the development via a state letter.“The safe, secure, and sustainable development of air connectivity is underpinned by compliance with ICAO standards and recommended practices (SARPs) and the implementation of our global plans and other guidance materials. Joining ICAO is the first step toward compliance,” noted the president of the ICAO council, Dr Olumuyiwa Benard Aliu. “As aviation is pivotal to the realisation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted under the UN’s Agenda 2030 and is particularly crucial to the sustainable economic prosperity and resilience of small island developing states (SIDS), Dominica’s ratification of the Chicago convention will represent a significant moment in history.”ICAO membership will be particularly important for the development of Dominica’s tourism sector, as air transport and tourism are major and highly synergistic economic sectors. This is illustrated by the fact that, at the global level, 57 percent of international tourists travel to and from their destinations by air. The combined contribution to the world GDP of these two sectors is, in fact, close to 14 percent. Significant growth in air services and tourism is forecast, which represents a particularly important opportunity for island states like Dominica.“Dominica will now be able to access the global guidance, and support ICAO delivers through our no country left behind initiative. It enables our member states to develop aviation policies, strategies, and capacity that are optimised in terms of unlocking the sustainable development benefits of international air connectivity,” said ICAO secretary-general Dr Fang Liu. “We look forward to welcoming Dominica to events such as the upcoming ICAO World Aviation Forum, which provides states with unique opportunities to connect with the world’s key aviation and finance stakeholders and expand their aviation sector through strategic partnerships. A strong foundation for these partnerships will be provided by the ICAO strategic guidance, linked to our safety and security auditing that Dominica will now be receiving.”Like the other states in the Caribbean, Dominica will receive crucial support from ICAO’s North American, Central American and Caribbean (NACC) regional office, enabling it to thoroughly identify and benefit from the opportunities presented by its ICAO membership, and participate fully in regional and global aviation planning going forward.last_img read more

Catholics urged to participate in feast of Our Lady of Fair Haven

first_imgShareTweetSharePin(l-r) DCR manager, Nazarine Gordon, Judy Boston, Val Cuffy and Fr. Nigel KaramThe parish of Our Lady of Fair Haven is offering an opportunity to families to promote “clean, good,wholesome fun.” Every year the catholic church celebrates the Feast of Our Lady of Fair Haven.At a news conference held on Tuesday morning attended by Fr. Nigel Karam, Val Cuffy and Judy Boston, it was announced that this year, the event will be celebrated with a week of activities which begins with a Family Fun Day on Sunday August 11th, 2019 at SMA grounds. Lunch will be served from 12-2pm and activities will run from 2-11pm. There is an entrance fee of $10 for adults and $5 for children.This is a call for support not just to Catholics but to Dominicans on a whole as the proceeds will go toward the completion of the Roseau Cathedral. Boston urged the public to “put their kitchen on strike and come enjoy a good Sunday meal.” Tickets will be available next week and can be purchased from congregation members, the parish of Our Lady of Fatima and St.Alphonsus, the parish and bishops’ office and business places.  She added that there will be games like Xbox and basketball for the older children games like lime and spoon, bouncing castle, face-painting etc for the younger ones. The activities are sponsored by FunZaggy, a company that is based in Portsmouth and specializes in chidrens’ games. The committee has been working with the Dominica Police Force to ensure that they will have complete use of Turkey Lane on that day and made it a point to inform the public that no vending will be allowed on the street. Patrons of the event will have full, undisturbed access to the entire street as booths, bars and games will be set up alongside it.There will be musical performances by Signal Band, DJ Sleem, DJ Mix and many more in an effort to accommodate to all age ranges. One of the main highlights of the event is a raffle to be drawn on December 19th 2019. 1st Prize- 60’’ Television, 2nd Prize- Ticket from L’express des isles courtesy of HHV Whitchurch and 3rd Prize- $300 food voucher from HHV Whitchurch. They have received generous donations from Fr. O’Guiste out of Miami and Cardinal Felix. Fr. Karam encourages the public to show up in large numbers to support the worthy cause that he deems “a national endeavour,” and Cuffy encourages the private sector and media houses to get involved and show their support.They reminded the public that their support and patronage does matter and does make an impact by revealing that over $40,000 was raised at last years’ Family Fun Day. The hope is that families will come to this event to promote family life and togetherness while supporting the efforts of the catholic church to rebuild a national monument. The activities for the week are as follows: Sunday 11th- Family Funday at SMA GroundsMonday 12th- Day of Prayer and Fasting for the ParishTuesday 13th-Thursday 15th- Early train evangelization; initiative to reach out to christians with outdoor praise etcFriday 16th- Presentation of rediscovering catholicism Saturday 17th – Parish does community outreach with visits, food baskets etc. In the afternoon there will be a Bishop Team vs Dean team cricket match. Winners will get a commemorative plaque in St. Gerards’ Hall.Sunday 18th – Feast celebration;  Procession, Holy Mass then brunch to conclude celebration of the feast of Our Lady of Fair Haven.last_img read more

Winslow candidates take part in forum

first_img By L. Parsons Last week, the Winslow branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) hosted a forum to introduce the town to it’s candidates. Vice President of the Chapter DennisSubscribe or log in to read the rest of this content. Bottom Ad May 1, 2018 Winslow candidates take part in forumlast_img

Islamic State expands reach in Afghanistan threatening West

first_imgThe Islamic State affiliate appeared in Afghanistan shortly after the group’s core fighters swept across Syria and Iraq in the summer of 2014, carving out a self-styled caliphate, or Islamic empire, in around a third of both countries.The Afghanistan affiliate refers to itself as the Khorasan Province, a name applied to parts of Afghanistan, Iran and central Asia in the Middle Ages.The IS affiliate initially numbered just a few dozen fighters, mainly Pakistani Taliban driven from their bases across the border and disgruntled Afghan Taliban attracted to IS’ more extreme ideology.While the Taliban have confined their struggle to Afghanistan, the IS militants pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the reclusive leader of the group in the Middle East, and embraced his call for a worldwide jihad against non-Muslims. Within Afghanistan, IS launched large-scale attacks on minority Shiites, who it views as apostates deserving of death The group suffered some early stumbles as its leaders were picked off by US airstrikes. But it received a major boost when the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan joined its ranks in 2015.Today it counts thousands of fighters, many from central Asia but also from Arab countries, Chechnya, India and Bangladesh, as well as ethnic Uighurs from China.The group has long been based in the eastern Nangarhar province, a rugged region along the border with Pakistan, but has a strong presence in northern Afghanistan and of late has expanded into neighbouring Kunar province, where it could prove even harder to dislodge.The mountainous province provided shelter for Osama bin Laden for nearly a year after the Taliban’s ouster, and US forces struggled for years to capture and hold high-altitude outposts there, eventually all but surrendering the region to the Taliban.The area comprising the provinces of Nangarhar, Nuristan, Kunar and Laghman was so dangerous that the US-led coalition assigned an acronym to it in the years after the invasion, referring to it as N2KL.Militants launching shoulder-fired rockets from Kunar’s peaks downed a US Chinook helicopter in 2005, killing 16 Navy SEALs and special operations forces in one of the deadliest single attacks of the war.Ajmal Omar, a member of the Nangarhar provincial council, says IS now has a presence in all four provinces. “Right now in Kunar, the right side of the road is Taliban, the left side is Daesh and the government is in the middle,” he said, referring to the group by its Arabic acronym.Speaking inside his heavily fortified home in the provincial capital, Jalalabad, he said neighbouring Kunar would soon replace the Middle East as the IS group’s centre of gravity.“When they began in Afghanistan they were maybe 150 Daesh, but today there are thousands and thousands,” he said.“The bad news is their acquisition of key terrain, height concealment, where they can have easy access to money, weapons, equipment . . .and from where they can plan, train, stage, facilitate and expedite attacks,” said the US intelligence official.“I think expansion of territory in eastern Afghanistan is their number one military objective,” with the goal of eventually encircling Jalalabad, he said.It’s been nearly 18 years since the US invaded Afghanistan to topple the Taliban, which had harboured al-Qaida when bin Laden and his lieutenants were planning the September 11 attacks.Now military and intelligence officials see the Taliban as a potential ally against a similar threat.In recent months the Taliban have said they have no ambitions to monopolise power in a post-war Afghanistan, while IS is committed to overthrowing the Kabul government on its path to establishing a global caliphate.The Taliban and IS are sharply divided over ideology and tactics, with the Taliban largely confining their attacks to government targets and Afghan and international security forces. The Taliban and IS have fought each other on a number of occasions, and the Taliban are still the larger and more imposing force. Family members of Indians abducted in Iraq narrate ‘ordeal’ at Delhi police station Iran launches missile strike targeting ISIS militants in Syria for Tehran attacks Advertising LiveKarnataka floor test: Will Kumaraswamy’s 14-month-old govt survive? Islamic State man from Kerala tells family he wants to return Nearly two decades after the US-led invasion, the extremist group is seen as an even greater threat than the Taliban because of its increasingly sophisticated military capabilities and its strategy of targeting civilians, both in Afghanistan and abroad. (Representational)The Islamic State group has lost its caliphate in Syria and Iraq, but in the forbidding mountains of northeastern Afghanistan, the group is expanding its footprint, recruiting new fighters and plotting attacks on the United States and other Western countries, according to the US and Afghan security officials. P Rajagopal, Saravana Bhavan founder sentenced to life for murder, dies By AP |Jalalabad (afghanistan) | Published: June 10, 2019 2:19:00 pm Best Of Express Taking stock of monsoon rain Ayodhya dispute: Mediation to continue till July 31, SC hearing likely from August 2 Advertising Advertising More Explained Nearly two decades after the US-led invasion, the extremist group is seen as an even greater threat than the Taliban because of its increasingly sophisticated military capabilities and its strategy of targeting civilians, both in Afghanistan and abroad.Concerns run so deep that many have come to see the Taliban, which has also clashed with IS, as a potential partner in containing it.A US intelligence official based in Afghanistan told The Associated Press that a recent wave of attacks in the capital, Kabul, is “practice runs” for even bigger attacks in Europe and the United States. Related News Post Comment(s) “This group is the most near-term threat to our homelands from Afghanistan,” the official said on condition of anonymity to preserve his operational security.“The IS core mandate is: You will conduct external attacks” in the US and Europe.“That is their goal. It’s just a matter of time,” he said. “It is very scary.”Bruce Hoffman, director of the Center for Security Studies at Georgetown University, sees Afghanistan as a possible new base for IS now that it has been driven from Iraq and Syria. “ISIS has invested a disproportionate amount of attention and resources in Afghanistan,” he said, pointing to “huge arms stockpiling” in the east. Russia strikes kill 180 jihadists, mercenaries in Syria last_img read more

Magnitude 65 quake hits off Chile near Coquimbo

first_img Pope Francis accepts resignation of Chilean auxiliary bishop Chile offers ‘democratic responsibility visa’ to Venezuelan migrants Chile, Chile Earthquake, Chile Earthquake news, Earthquake Chile, Chile news, Indian Express, world news, latest news The quake was initially measured at 6.4 magnitude. (Representational image)A magnitude 6.5 quake struck off Chile’s coast near the coastal city of Coquimbo, the U.S. Geological Survey said on Thursday.The quake, which hit an earthquake-prone area, was very shallow and struck 51 miles (82 km) west of Coquimbo, the USGS added. The quake was initially measured at 6.4 magnitude.(More details awaited) By Reuters | Published: June 14, 2019 7:31:11 am Post Comment(s) Related News Rescue launched for 3 Bolivians trapped in Chile mine last_img read more

Trump proposed DMZ meeting in letter to Kim before visit Report

first_img Related News Trump suggested the DMZ meeting in a letter to the North Korean leader, which was sent to Pyongyang in June by a senior US official, the Japanese newspaper said. The North Korean side agreed to give a “sign” if the meeting were to go ahead, according to the report.White House Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders confirmed in a statement that month that a letter was sent by the president. Kim said the letter had “excellent content,” state media KCNA reported at the time.The day before the summit, while in Japan for the G-20 gathering, Trump tweeted about his willingness to cross the border to meet Kim. He said he “put out a feeler” and that he didn’t know where Kim was at the time. Hours later, North Korean diplomat Choe Son Hui called Trump’s tweet “a very interesting suggestion.” According to Asahi, that was the signal to the U.S.’s special envoy to North Korea, Stephen Biegun, to begin preparations for the meeting.While Trump has met Kim twice before at summits in Singapore and Hanoi, no U.S. president had ever sat down with a North Korean leader at the DMZ. Kim said he was “surprised” by Trump’s request to meet, and called the U.S. president’s short walk over the demarcation line into North Korea “a very courageous and determined act.” Trump says ‘will take a look’ at accusations over Google, China Advertising US mulls increasing merit-based immigration to 57% By Bloomberg | Published: July 6, 2019 10:38:04 am trump-kim meeting, Donald trump, Kim Jong Un, us north korea, north korea us,  us north korea sanctions, world news, Indian Express Trump suggested the DMZ meeting in a letter to the North Korean leader, which was sent to Pyongyang in June by a senior US official, the Japanese newspaper said.President Donald Trump’s blitz meeting with Kim Jong Un at the demilitarized zone between the Korean nations on June 30 was planned ahead by the two sides, the Asahi reported, citing unnamed U.S. and North Korean diplomats. US House votes to set aside impeachment resolution against Trump Post Comment(s)last_img read more

Only two cases of child sexual abuse disposed in six months Supreme

first_img child sexual abuse, child abuse, supreme court on child sexual abuse, sexual abuse, child sexual abuse cases, ranjan gogoi, supreme court of india The Supreme Court had taken suo motu cognizance of the matter and appointed Senior Advocate V Giri as amicus curiae to suggest ways to ensure faster disposal. (File photo)The Supreme Court Monday expressed displeasure over the tardy pace of disposal of cases of sexual crimes against children in the national capital, and suggested that courts for children be kept away from regular court complexes. Post Comment(s) SC rules: Rebel Karnataka MLAs can’t be compelled to participate in trust vote Karnataka crisis: SC verdict a moral victory for rebel MLAs, says Yeddyurappa Related News He suggested if appointing special prosecutors only for child rape cases could be considered. Designated courts hearing cases under the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 (POCSO) must not be burdened to hear any other matter, the amicus said. Giri also said there was a need to restructure court buildings in such a way that they will be sensitive to the needs of the children.Justice Gupta said that at present, courts which hear cases under the POCSO Act are within the regular court complexes. “They should be totally separate,” he said.The amicus sought time to collate all the relevant facts and present them in writing.Allowing this, the court said, “We request Shri Giri to proceed with the exercise, to facilitate which we direct Shri Surinder S Rathi, Registrar of this Court, to work in association with Shri Giri’s office and get the required information which would be in the context of the total number of POCSO cases pending in each district of the country. The period for which the POCSO cases remained pending may also be collected separately.” “Look at the disposal rate in Delhi — only two cases between January and June this year. This is the state of affairs in the national capital despite state-of-the-art facilities,” observed Chief Justice of India Ranjan Gogoi. The Chief Justice, along with Justice Deepak Gupta, was hearing a petition which raised the issue of pendency of child rape cases across the country.The court had taken suo motu cognizance of the matter and appointed Senior Advocate V Giri as amicus curiae to suggest ways to ensure faster disposal.Giri told the court that in most states, including those where the number of such cases was not overwhelming, the disposal rate was poor. Advertising Advertising By Express News Service |New Delhi | Published: July 16, 2019 1:08:15 am Harish Salve: The lawyer who represented India in Kulbhushan Jadhav case last_img read more

Penn scientists to explore new approach for predicting and treating diseases at

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Oct 3 2018A new National Institutes of Health (NIH) High-Risk, High-Reward grant will allow Penn State’s Steven Schiff and team to explore a radically changed approach to predicting, preventing and treating infectious disease at the individual level at point-of-care. This venture provides the researchers an opportunity to explore a new way of addressing critical unmet needs, especially in the developing world.As a pediatric neurosurgeon, Schiff has dedicated a significant portion of his career to the study and treatment of brain diseases in children. Brain infection in infants often results in hydrocephalus, fluid build-up in the brain that can lead to brain damage and death.”Infant hydrocephalus is the most common reason for neurosurgery in young children worldwide,” said Schiff, Harvey F. Brush Chair in the College of Engineering in the departments of Neurosurgery, Engineering Science and Mechanics and Physics. “If we are to best treat infectious disease, for example in these infants, we need to start focusing on preventing their infections, instead of training surgeons and building advanced surgical facilities to repair the effects after these infections occur.” Schiff turned to explore critical areas of scientific discovery that have the potential to create or overturn fundamental paradigms.A National Institutes of Health Director’s Pioneer grant in 2015 allowed Schiff to shift his professional focus from neuroscience to study the causes of childhood infectious diseases in the developing world, where neonatal sepsis claims 1 million lives each year. Today, he wasnamed recipient of an $8.1 million NIH Director’s Transformative Research Award for a project that aims to radically change the approach to treatment of these diseases, emphasizing prediction and prevention.Schiff will now be able to assemble a ‘dream team’ to develop innovative models that incorporate the ability to predict outbreaks of epidemic disease with predictions of pathogen type and host resistance, allowing real-time preventive treatment at the point of care, instead of relying on standard diagnostic approaches.”We have demonstrated that it is feasible to predict epidemic disease outbreaks from retrospective seasonal and geographical case data and have shown that we can take climate factors into account in our predictive models,” said Schiff, who is also the director of the Penn State Center for Neural Engineering. “But predictive strategies have never been used in treatment of individual patients. We believe our approach to predictive personalized public health has the potential to substantially improve patient outcomes.”Today, patients suffering from symptoms of infectious disease such as sepsis, flu-like illness, fever with rash, or meningitis, are typically all treated alike: by drawing samples for laboratory analysis, starting antibiotic therapy with the physician’s best guess as to the likely causes, and then hoping to learn the causative reason for the infection over a period of days from laboratory analysis. Schiff’s vision is to move from reactive, delayed diagnoses to real-time treatment usingpredictive models that incorporate historical microbiological surveillance data, geographic location of the patient, and environmental and climatic factors to determine the likely pathogens and narrow down the best treatment choices at the point of care.Over the next few years, Schiff and his team will build on both his own previous work and years of existing research on infant infections. Theywill take a multi-pronged approach involving disciplines as disparate as epidemiology, meteorology and genomics, and using a variety of tools including machine learning, statistics and engineering control theory. The Ugandan National Planning Authority, Meteorological Authority, and Ministry of Health, are among the critical departments that have offered their support, and Schiff noted that the work of these agencies within Uganda will be key to successful implementation trials.Related StoriesWearing a hearing aid may mitigate dementia riskAn active brain and body associated with reduced risk of dementiaRush University Medical Center offers new FDA-approved treatment for brain aneurysms”This is work that no one could ever do on their own. It is the outgrowth of 12 years at Penn State and the opportunity to collaborate through transdisciplinary research with colleagues and personnel in Uganda — blending medicine, engineering and science,” Schiff said. “One of our unique strengths at Penn State is the ability to integrate across traditional disciplines with the teamwork required to work toward important goals. Faculty at Penn State are very open to such collaborations, and across our medical, engineering and science campuses, we have the breadth of expertise required to tackle critical problems of this magnitude.”The Transformative Research Award, established in 2009, promotes cross-cutting, transdisciplinary approaches and is part of the NIH Common Fund’s High-Risk, High-Reward Research Programbestowed on exceptionally creative scientists proposing paradigm-shifting research. The awards were created to support unconventional approaches to major challenges in biomedical and behavioral research. Schiff’s award is one of the 10 Transformative Research awards among 89 total awards granted for a total of approximately $282 million over five years. With today’s announcement, Penn State joins the ranks of the few institutions in the U.S. with faculty who have received both the Pioneer and the Transformative Research Awards.”Steve Schiff has devoted his career to improving the lives of children coping with serious, sometimes fatal brain disorders, and he’s especially passionate about the acute needs of children living in under-developed countries,” said Dr. A. Craig Hillemeier, dean of Penn State College of Medicine, CEO of Penn State Health and senior vice president for health affairs at Penn State. “I am elated that his many years of innovative and collaborative research to improve health outcomes for children are being recognized and rewarded with this NIH Director’s Award.”In addition to a close collaboration with Penn State’s Institute for Personalized Medicine, and partnering with colleagues from many disciplines at Penn State and Penn State Health, Schiff’s team will include the CURE Children’s Hospital of Uganda, leading experts from Harvard and George Mason University, and from companies such as Genentech.”This work promises to make a profound impact on the entire medical field and may have long-term implications for healthcare on a global scale,” said Neil Sharkey, vice president for research, Penn State.”Dr. Schiff’s vision exemplifies the type of collaboration unique to Penn State that harnesses the broad talent needed to effectively address critical, universal problems,” said Justin Schwartz, Harold and Inge Marcus Dean, College of Engineering. “The College of Engineering is focused on translational research and his approach personifies this vision by bridging the gap between the fields of medicine and engineering.” Source:https://news.psu.edu/story/539405/2018/10/02/research/new-predictive-models-may-transform-personalized-treatmentlast_img read more